Visit the Internet web sites listed below to be sure!

For information on how Bellesiles has distorted American history in an attempt to deceive and manipulate the public, visit the internet sites listed below.

Bellesiles uses intellectual dishonesty and bigotry against firearm owners, stereotyping and derisively labeling them as the "gun culture." It is obvious that in both early and modern America, it is inaccurate and dishonest to lump all firearm owners together, be they peaceful citizens and patriotic part-time militia members fighting for independence and freedom, or criminal ruffians and highwaymen.

FraudFactor web site Academic and Research Fraud Index Page (check back regularly for new content):
(mirror site)

SAF Guns in Early America Index Page:

These two links provide multiple examples of Bellesiles' misquotes of historical documents and instances where he changed the original vocabulary to misrepresent or reverse the author's intent. This practice indicates intentional fraud rather than gross incompetence.

Letter published in the Washington Post from constitutional law scholar and author Stephen P. Halbrook (third letter from top), stating that the inventories of Thomas Jefferson's three estates did not list a single firearm even though it is well known and documented that Jefferson owned multiple firearms of value and he was a strong advocate of widespread private firearm ownership for self-defense. This significant example is just one of many that debunks Bellesiles methodology.

History author Clayton Cramer's web site:

Rebuttal to Bellesiles article in the Journal of American History where he asserts that guns and hunting were actually quite rare in America before the Mexican War -- even on the frontier. (25 page PDF file)

Longer, more detailed refutation of Bellesiles "research", exposing what appears to be intentional research fraud:

This position paper, "Counting Guns In Early America" is especially important for those who wish to understand the intellectual and academic dishonesty with which Bellesiles conducted his research.

Download free Acrobat Reader Web Browser plug-in if you cannot view the above PDF files:

NRA Response