1 Kopel DB. Guns, germs, and science: public health approaches to gun control. Presentation to the College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma, Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK. October 14, 1994.
2 Christoffel KK. quoted in: Somerville J. Gun control as immunization. American Medical News. January 3, 1994. p 9.
3 Adelson L. The gun and the sanctity of human life; or the bullet as pathogen. Archives of Surgery June 1992; 127: 659-664.
4 Suter EA. Guns in the medical literature - a failure of peer review. Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia. March 1994; 83: 133-48.
5 Kates DB, Lattimer JK, Murray GB, Cassem EH, Schaffer HE, and Southwick L. Gun control: epidemic of violence or pandemic of propaganda. University of Tennessee Law Review. Spring 1995.
6 Kates DB, Lattimer JK, and Cottrol RJ. Public health literature on firearms - a critique of overt mendacity. a paper presented to the American Society of Criminology annual meeting. New Orleans, LA. November 5, 1992.
7 Blackman PH. The federal factoid factory on firearms and violence: a review of CDC research and politics. a paper presented to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Chicago IL. March 8-12, 1994.
8 Blackman PH. Criminology's astrology: the Center for Disease Control approach to public health research on firearms and violence.. a paper presented to the American Society of Criminology. Baltimore, MD November 7-10, 1990.
9 Blackman PH. Children and firearms: lies the CDC loves.. a paper presented to the American Society of Criminology. New Orleans, LA. November 4-7, 1992.
10 Suter E. 'Assault weapons' revisited - an analysis of the AMA report. Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia. May1994; 83: 281-89.
11 Kleck G. Point blank: guns and violence in america. New York: Aldine de Gruyter. 1991.
12 Wright JD. and Rossi PH. Weapons, crime, and violence in America: executive summary. Washington, DC: US Dept. of Justice, National Institute of Justice. 1981.
13 Wright JD and Rossi PH. Armed and considered dangerous: a survey of felons and their firearms. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter. 1986.
14 Kopel DB. The samurai, the mountie, and the cowboy: should America adopt the gun controls of other democracies? New York: Prometheus Press. 1992.
15 Kates DB. Guns, murders, and the constitution: a realistic assessment of gun control. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy. 1990.
16 Hemenway D, Soinick SJ, and Azrael DR. Firearms training and storage. JAMA. 1995; 273(1):46-50.
17 Kassirer JP. Correspondence. N Engl J. Med 1992; 326:1159-60.
18 Adler KP, Barondess JA, Cohen JJ, Farber SJ, et al. Firearm violence and public health: limiting the availability of guns. JAMA. 1994; 271(16): 1281-83.
19 Mock C, Pilcher S, and Maier R. Comparison of the costs of acute treatment for gunshot and stab wounds: further evidence of the need for firearms control. J. Trauma. 1994; 36(4):516-21.
20 Harvard Medical Practice Study. Report to the State of New York. Cambridge MA: Harvard Medical School. 1990.
21 Leape LL. Error in medicine. JAMA. 1994; 272(23): 1851-57.
22 Kleck G and Gertz M. Armed resistance to crime: the prevalence and nature of self-defense with a gun. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. Summer 1995: 86. forthcoming.
23 Kellermann A, Kleck G, and Suter E. Letters to the Editor. Journal of the Medical Association of Georgia. June 1994; 83: 42-47.
24 Webster D, Chaulk, Teret S, and Wintemute G. Reducing firearm injuries. Issues in Science and Technology. Spring 1991: 73-9.
25 Christoffel KK. Towards reducing pediatric injuries from firearms: charting a legislative and regulatory course. Pediatrics. 1992; 88:294-300.
26 Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Justice. Uniform crime reports: crime in the United States 1993. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1994. Table 5.
27 Dawson JB aand Langan PA, US Bureau of Justice Statistics statisticians. Murder in families. Washington DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice. 1994. p. 5, Table 7.
28 US Bureau of Justice Statistics. Murder in large urban counties, 1988. Washington DC: US Department of Justice. 1993.
29 Narloch R. Criminal homicide in california. Sacramento CA: California Bureau of Criminal Statistics. 1973. pp 53-4.
30 Mulvihill D et al. Crimes of violence: report of the task force on individual acts of violence. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1969. p 532.
31 Wheeler ED and Baron SA. Violence in our schools, hospitals and public places: a prevention and management guide. Ventura CA: Pathfinder. 1993.
32 Max W and Rice DP. Shooting in the dark: estimating the cost of firearm injuries. Health Affairs. 1993; 12(4): 171-85.
33 Nieto M, Dunstan R, and Koehler GA. Firearm-related violence in california: incidence and economic costs. Sacramento CA: California Research Bureau, California State Library. October 1994.
34 McGonigal MD, Cole J, Schwab W, Kauder DR, Rotondo MF, and Angood PB. Urban firearms deaths: a five-year perspective. J Trauma. 1993; 35(4): 532-36.
35 Hutson HR, Anglin D, and Pratss MJ. Adolescents and children injured or killed in drive-by shootings in Los Angeles. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330: 324-27.
36 Zedlewski EW. Making confinement decisions - research in brief. Washington DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. July 1987.
37 Sugarmann J and Rand K. Cease Fire - A comprehensive strategy to reduce violence. Washington DC: Violence Policy Center. 1993.
38 Morgan EC and Kopel DB. The 'assault weapon' panic - political correctness takes aim at the Constitution. Golden CO: Independence Institute. 1993.
39 Fackler ML, Malinowski JA, Hoxie SW, and Jason A. Wounding effects of the AK-47 rifle used by Patrick Purdy in the Stockton, California, schoolyard shooting of January 17, 1989. Am J Forensic Medicine and Path. 1990; 11(3): 185-90.
40 Fackler ML. Wound Ballistics: a review of common misconceptions. JAMA. 1988; 259: 2730-6.
41 Fackler ML. Wound ballistics. in Trunkey DD and Lewis FR, editors. Current therapy of trauma, vol 2. Philadelphia: BC Decker Inc. 1986. pp. 94-101.
42 Pinkney DS. ERs seeing more 'war wounds' caused by assault weapons. American Medical News. April 14, 1989; 3: 42-5. cited in: American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs. Assault weapons as a public health hazard in the United States. JAMA 1992; 267: 3070.
43 Suter E. Testimony before the Pennsylvania State Senate Select Committee on the Use of Full- and Semi-Automatic Firearms in Crime. Pittsburg, PA. August 16, 1994.
44 Hartzler v. City of San Jose, App., 120 Cal. Rptr. 5 (1975).
45 Warren v. District of Columbia, D.C. App., 444 A.2d. 1 (1981).
46 South v. Maryland, 59 U.S. (HOW) 396, 15 L.Ed., 433 (1856).
47 Bowers v. DeVito, U.S. Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit, 686F.2d. 616 (1882).
48 Besides case law, statutes relieve the police of any responsibility to provide protection to individual citizens, for example, California Government Code Section 845. Failure to provide police protectionJ-
Neither a public entity nor a public employee is liable for failure to establish a police department or otherwise provide police protection service or, if police protection service is provided, for failure to provide sufficient police protection service.
49 Cramer C and Kopel D. Shall issue: the new wave of concealed handgun permit laws. Golden CO: Independence Institute Issue Paper. October 17, 1994.
50 Hernandez M. US orders in troops to quell island violence. Los Angeles Times. September 21, 1989. p. 1.
51 Cottrol RJ and Diamond RT. The second amendment: toward an Afro-Americanist reconsideration. The Georgetown Law Journal. December 1991: 80; 309-61.
52 Kates DB. Toward a history of handgun prohibition in the United States. in Kates, DB, Editor. Restricting handguns: the liberal skeptics speak out. North River Press. 1979.
53 Kessler RG. Gun control and political power. Law & Policy Quarterly. July 1983: Vol. 5, #3; 381-400.
54 Simkin J, Zelman A, and Rice A. Lethal laws. Milwaukee WI: Jews for the Preservation of Firearms Ownership. 1994.
55 Centerwall BS. "Television and violence: the scale of the problem and where to go from here." JAMA. 1992; 267: 3059-63.
56 Centerwall BS. "Exposure to television as a risk factor for violence." Am. J. Epidemiology. 1989; 129: 643-52.
57 Centerwall BS "Young adult suicide and exposure to television." Soc. Psy. and Psychiatric Epid. 1990; 25:121.
58 Vernick JS and Teret SP. Firearms and health: the right to be armed with accurate information about the second amendment. Am. J. Public Health. 1993; 83(12):1773-77.
59 Henigan DA. Arms, anarchy and the second amendment. Valparaiso U. Law Review. Fall 1991; 26: 107-129.
60 Ehrman K and Henigan D. The second amendment in the 20th century: have you seen your militia lately? Univ. Dayton LawJReview. 1989; 15:5-58.;
61 Van Alstyne W. The second amendment and the personal right to arms. Duke Law Journal. 1994; 43(6): 1236-55.
62 Kates D. Handgun prohibition and the original meaning of the second amendment. Michigan Law Review. 1983; 82:203-73.
63 U.S. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution. The right to keep and bear arms: report of the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Congress. 97th. Congress. 2nd. Session. February 1982.
64 Malcolm JL. To keep and bear arms: the origins of an Anglo-American right. Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press. 1994.
65 Halbrook SP. That every man be armed - the evolution of a constitutional right. Albuquerque NM: University of New Mexico Press. 1984.
66 Cramer CE. For the defense of themselves and the state: the original intent and judicial interpretation of the right to keep and bear arms. Westport CT & London, England: Praeger. 1994.
67 Presser v. Illinois. 116 U.S. 252 (1886). at 265.
68 U.S. v. Cruickshank. 92 U.S. 542 (1876).
69 Miller v. Texas 153 U.S. 535 (1894).
70 Roberston v. Baldwin 165 U.S. 275 (1897).
71 Miller v. U.S.. 307 U.S. 174 (1938).
72 Reynolds GH and Kates DB. The second amendment and states rights: a thought experiment. College of William and Mary Law Review. Summer 1995.
73 Nunn v. State. 1Ga. 243 (1846).
74 in re: Brickey. 8 Idaho 597, 70 P. 609 (1902).
75 Articles supportive of the individual rights view include:
Van Alstyne W. The second amendment and the personal right to arms. Duke Law Journal. 1994; 43(6): 1236-55.; Amar AR. The bill of rights and the fourteenth amendment. Yale Law Journal. 1992; 101: 1193-1284.; Winter 1992; 9: 87-104.; Scarry E. War and the social contract: the right to bear arms. Univ. Penn. Law Rev. 1991; 139(5): 1257-1316.; Williams DL. Civic republicanism and the citizen militia: the terrifying second amendment. Yale Law Journal. 1991; 101:551-616.; Cottrol RJ and Diamond RT. The second amendment: toward an Afro-Americanist reconsideration. The Georgetown Law Journal. December 1991: 80; 309-61.; Amar AR. The bill of rights as a constitution Yale Law Journal. 1991; 100 (5): 1131-1210.; Levinson S. The embarrassing second amendment. Yale Law Journal. 1989; 99:637-659.; Kates D. The second amendment: a dialogue. Law and Contemporary Problems. 1986; 49:143.; Malcolm JL. Essay review. George Washington U. Law Review. 1986; 54: 452-464.; Fussner FS. Essay review. Constitutional Commentary. 1986; 3: 582-8.; Shalhope RE. The armed citizen in the early republic. Law and Contemporary Problems. 1986; 49:125-141.; Halbrook S. What the framers intended: a linguistic interpretation of the second amendment. Law and Contemporary Problems. 1986; 49:151-162.; Kates D. Handgun prohibition and the original meaning of the second amendment. Michigan Law Review. 1983; 82:203-73. Halbrook S. The right to bear arms in the first state Bills of Rights: Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Vermont, and Massachusetts. Vermont Law Review 1985; 10: 255-320.; Halbrook S. The right of the people or the power of the state: bearing arms, arming militias, and the second amendment. Valparaiso Law Review. 1991; 26:131-207.; Tahmassebi SB. Gun control and racism. George Mason Univ. Civil Rights Law Journal. Winter 1991; 2(1):67-99.; Reynolds GH. The right to keep and bear arms under the Tennessee Constitution. Tennessee Law Review. Winter 1994; 61:2. Bordenet TM. The right to possess arms: the intent of the Framers of the second amendment. U.W.L.A. L. Review. 1990; 21:1.-30.; Moncure T. Who is the militia - the Virginia ratifying convention and the right to bear arms. Lincoln Law Review. 1990; 19:1-25.; Lund N. The second amendment, political liberty and the right to self-preservation. Alabama Law Review 1987; 39:103.-130.; Morgan E. Assault rifle legislation: unwise and unconstitutional. American Journal of Criminal Law. 1990; 17:143-174.; Dowlut, R. Federal and state constitutional guarantees to arms. Univ. Dayton Law Review. 1989.; 15(1):59-89.; Halbrook SP. Encroachments of the crown on the liberty of the subject: pre-revolutionary origins of the second amendment. Univ. Dayton Law Review. 1989; 15(1):91-124.; Hardy DT. The second amendment and the historiography of the Bill of Rights. Journal of Law and Politics. Summer 1987; 4(1):1-62.; Hardy DT. Armed citizens, citizen armies: toward a jurisprudence of the second amendment. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy. 1986; 9:559-638.; Dowlut R. The current relevancy of keeping and bearing arms. Univ. Baltimore Law Forum. 1984; 15:30-32.; Malcolm JL. The right of the people to keep and bear arms: The Common Law Tradition. Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly. Winter 1983; 10(2):285-314.; Dowlut R. The right to arms: does the Constitution or the predilection of judges reign? Oklahoma Law Review. 1983; 36:65-105.; Caplan DI. The right of the individual to keep and bear arms: a recent judicial trend. Detroit College of Law Review. 1982; 789-823.; Halbrook SP. To keep and bear 'their private arms' Northern Kentucky Law Review. 1982; 10(1):13-39.; Gottlieb A. Gun ownership: a constitutional right. Northern Kentucky Law Review 1982; 10:113-40.; Gardiner R. To preserve liberty -- a look at the right to keep and bear arms. Northern Kentucky Law Review. 1982; 10(1):63-96.; Kluin KF. Note. Gun control: is it a legal and effective means of controlling firearms in the United States? Washburn Law Journal 1982; 21:244-264.; Halbrook S. The jurisprudence of the second and fourteenth amendments. George Mason U. Civil Rights Law Review. 1981; 4:1-69. Wagner JR. Comment: gun control legislation and the intent of the second amendment: to what extent is there an individual right to keep and bear arms? Villanova Law Review. 1992; 37:1407-1459.
The following treatments in book form also conclude that the individual right position is correct:
Malcolm JL. To keep and bear arms: the origins of an Anglo-American right. Cambridge MA: Harvard U. Press. 1994.; Cottrol R. Gun control and the Constitution (3 volume set). New York City: Garland. 1993.; Cramer CE. For the defense of themselves and the state: the original intent and judicial interpretation of the right to keep and bear arms. Westport CT: Praeger Publishers. 1994. Cottrol R and Diamond R. Public safety and the right to bear arms. in Bodenhamer D and Ely J. After 200 years; the Bill of Rights in modern America. Indiana U. Press. 1993.; Oxford Companion to the United States Supreme Court. Oxford U. Press. 1992. (entry on the Second Amendment); Foner E and Garrity J. Reader's companion to American history. Houghton Mifflin. 1991. 477-78. (entry on "Guns and Gun Control"); Kates D. "Minimalist interpretation of the second amendment" in E. Hickok, editor. The Bill of Rights: original meaning and current understanding. Charlottesville: U. Press of Virginia. 1991.; Halbrook S. The original understanding of the second amendment. in E. Hickok, editor. The Bill of Rights: original meaning and current understanding. Charlottesville: U. Press of Virginia. 1991.; Young DE. The origin of the second amendment. Golden Oak Books. 1991.; Halbrook S. A right to bear arms: state and federal Bills of Rights and constitutional guarantees. Greenwood. 1989.; Levy LW. Original intent and the Framers' constitution. Macmillan. 1988.; Hardy D. Origins and development of the second amendment. Blacksmith. 1986.; Levy LW, Karst KL, and Mahoney DJ. Encyclopedia of the American Constitution. New York: Macmillan. 1986. (entry on the Second Amendment); Halbrook S. That every man be armed: the evolution of a constitutional right. Albuquerque, NM: U. New Mexico Press. 1984.; Marina. Weapons, technology and legitimacy: The second amendment in global perspective. and Halbrook S. The second amendment as a phenomenon of classical political philosophy. -- both in Kates D (ed.). Firearms and violence. San Francisco: Pacific Research Institute. 1984.; U.S. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution. The right to keep and bear arms: report of the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Congress. 97th. Congress. 2nd. Session. February 1982.
regarding incorporation of the Second Amendment:
Aynes RL. On misreading John Bingham and the fourteenth amendment. Yale Law Journal. 1993; 103:57-104.;
76 The minority supporting a collective right only view:
Ehrman K and Henigan D. The second amendment in the 20th century: have you seen your militia lately? Univ. Dayton LawJReview. 1989; 15:5-58.; Henigan DA. Arms, anarchy and the second amendment. Valparaiso U. Law Review. Fall 1991; 26: 107-129.; Fields S. Guns, crime and the negligent gun owner. Northern Kentucky Law Review. 1982; 10(1): 141-162.; and Spannaus W. State firearms regulation and the second amendment. Hamline Law Review. 1983; 6:383-408.
In addition, see:
Beschle. Reconsidering the second amendment: constitutional protection for a right of security. Hamline Law Review. 1986; 9:69. (conceding that the Amendment does guarantee a right of personal security, but arguing that personal security can constitutionally be implemented by banning and confiscating all guns).
77 Kates D. The second amendment and the ideology of self-protection. Constitutional Commentary. Winter 1992; 9: 87-104.
78 Johnson NJ. Beyond the second amendment: an individual right to arms viewed through the ninth amendment. Rutgers Law Journal. Fall 1992; 24 (1): 1-81.
79 Curtis M. No state shall abridge. Durham NC: Duke. 1986. pp. 52, 53, 56, 72, 88, 140-1 and 164.
80 Amar AR. The Bill of Rights and the fourteenth amendment. The Yale Law Journal. 1992; 101: 1193-1284.
81 Aynes RL. On misreading John Bingham and the fourteenth amendment. Yale Law Journal. 1993; 103:57-104.
82 Halbrook S. Freedmen, firearms, and the fourteenth amendment. in That every man be armed: the evolution of a constitutional right. Albuquerque, NM: U. of New Mexico Press. 1984. Chap. 5.
83 New York v. United States. 112 Sup.Ct.Rptr. 2408 (1992).
84 18 USC Section 922(s) (2), the portion of the Brady Law that orders State-created chief law enforcement officers to search available records and to ascertain the legality of handgun transactions, has been held unconstitutional in Printz v. United States. , 854 F. Supp. 1503 (D. Mont.) 1994), appeal pending (9th Cir. No. 94-36193); Mack v. United States, 856 F. Supp. 1372 (D. Ariz.), appeal pending (9th Cir. No. 94-16940); McGee v. United States, 863 F. Supp. 321 (S.D. Miss. 1994), appeal pending (5th Cir No. 94-60518); Frank v. United States, 860 F. Supp. 1030 (D. Vt. 1994); Romero v. United States; Romero v. United States No. 94-0419, W. D. La. (Dec. 8, 1994). Romero also held that Section 922(s) (6) (B) and (C), which require chief law enforcement officers to destroy records of handgun transactions and to write letters explaining denials, unconstitutional under the Tenth Amendment.
Koog v. United States, 852 F. Supp. 1376 (W.D. Tex. 1994), appeal pending (5th Cir. No. 94-50562), the only district court opinion to uphold all of Section 922(s), argues that the latest US Supreme Court precedent on the Tenth Amendment is contracdictory and makes logical leap[s]. Id. at 1381, 1386 n. 20.
85 Cramer C and Kopel D. Concealed handgun permits for licensed trained citizens: a policy that is saving lives. Golden CO: Independence Institute Issue Paper #14-93. 1993.
86 McDowall D, Loftin C, and Wiersema B. "Easing Concealer Firearm Laws: Effects on Homicide in Three States." Discussion Paper 15. College Park MD: University of Maryland Violence Research Group. January 1995. - also forthcoming in Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. June 1995.
87 Loftin C, McDowall D, Wiersema B, and Cottey TJ. Effects of Restrictive Licensing of Handguns on Homicide and Suicide in the District of Columbia. N. Engl J Med 1991; 325:1615-20.
88 Kopel DB. Prison blues: how America's foolish sentencing policies endanger public safety, Washington DC: Cato Institute. Policy Analysis No. 208. May 17, 1994.
89 Hatch O and Dole R, US Senators. letter to US Attorney General Janet Reno. November 3, 1994.
90 Aborn R, President of Handgun Control Inc. Letter to the editor. Washington Post. September 30, 1994.
91 Howlett D. Jury still out on success of the Brady Law. USA Today. December 28, 1994. p A-2.
92 Halbrook SP. Another look at the Brady Law. Washington Post. October 8, 1994. p A-18.
93 Harris J, Assistant Attorney General, US Department of Justice. Statement to the Subcommittee on Crime and Criminal Justice, Committee on the Judiciary, US House of Representatives concerning federal firearms prosecutions. September 20, 1994.
94 Bureau of Justice Statistics, US Department of Justice. Guns and crime. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. April 1994; NCJ-147003.
95 Federal Bureau of Investigation, US Department of Justice. Uniform crime reports: crime in the United States 1992. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office. 1993.
96 National Safety Council. Accident facts 1992. Chicago: National Safety Council. 1993.
97 Rector R. Combatting family disintegration, crime and dependence: welfare reform and beyond. Washington DC: Heritage Foundation. April 8, 1994.
98 Polsby D. The false promises of gun control. The Atlantic Monthly. March 1994. 57-70.